[3. Contemporary Special Branch files in context] [Return to Intro] [5. Additional Material]

Introduction

As noted in previous sections, the main groups involved in the anti-Vietnam war demonstrations were controlled by relatively tight political cadres. Thus, to gain access to their targets, the newly deployed undercover officers of the Special Demonstration Squad (SDS) would have attended public events, protests and the meetings of the local branches of the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign (VSC) or similar organisations.

Cover of the VSC Bulletin, Issue 18, 1968.

Of the undercover officer details released to date (April 2018) by the Undercover Policing Inquiry, all those from 1968 appear to relate to VSC branches aligned with the main Trotskyist groups. This material, though slim, can nevertheless be given  more context by examining the VSC local group structure. For this reason we will set out what is known of the London branches before getting into the undercover deployments.

Saying this, it is likely the list of radical left wing groups set out by Conrad Dixon in his 3 October report (see part 3) were his main targets for infiltration. Certainly, given his discussions of the tactics of the Maoists and anarchists and also their involvements in the actual clashes with police, it would be very surprising if these groups were not also targeted in some way, including by undercovers.

Local branch structure

A reading of the sources indicate that VSC branches were generally inactive until spurred into action by the necessity of preparing for an upcoming protest. For example, in the run up to the 17 March protest, local VSC groups were formed in Camden, Hackney, Kilburn and Richmond[1]Local V.S.C. Activities, Vietnam Solidarity Bulliten, Issue 11, February 1968 (accessed via the Richman papers, vide infra). The Hackney branch existed in May 1968, when it and the North West Kent branches registered for the VSC National Conference – see Minutes of VSC Executive Committee meeting of 2 May 1968, Richman papers (vide infra). but subsequently disappear or are recorded as reforming ahead ofthe 27 October demonstration. Thus, the branches come in and out of existence as needed and had a fluid nature. Mention of them in contemporary material from the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign is sparse, so we rely to a large degree on the material in Conrad Dixon’s Special Branch reports, augmented with contemporary sources where possible.

On 30 August, Dixon lists the active VSC branches in London as Earls Court, Hampstead, Kilburn, Notting Hill Gate, Fulham, Lambeth, Walthamstow, Hornsey and Highgate & Holloway.[2]Conrad Dixon, Report on Vietnam Solidarity Campaign, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 30 August 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK). On 10 September he adds in the Hackney branch and says four ad hoc committees have been formed to coordinate local activity:[3]Conrad Dixon, Report on Vietnam Solidarity Campaign “Autumn Offensive”, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 10 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).

  • North London ad hoc committee
  • North West London ad hoc committee / North-West London Action Group[4]Diary of Forthcoming Events: September-October, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No. 17, 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org).
  • West Middlesex Vietnam ad hoc committee
  • Libertarian ad hoc committee

On 3 October he reported a new VSC branch had been established in Havering, while a ‘South West London ad-hoc committee is in the process of being formed’. He also claims that:[5]Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 3 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).

The [International Socialists] have almost had the field to themselves in creating the present structure of the V.S.C. Their followers dominate the V.S.C. at every level: executive, regional ad-hoc committees and local branches. Almost every existing V.S.C. is an I.S. branch in another name.

 

In the same report, Dixon wrote of the British Vietnam Solidarity Front:[6]Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 3 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).

Their influence in V.S.C. branches is not strong though they control two of London’s best-attended and most active branches, namely Earls Court[7]Minutes of the VSC Executive Committee of 2 May 1968 note that ‘Attemt to form a Branch in Earls Court swamped by opponents of V.S.C.. [Executive Committee] declares that meeting was null and void. Only V.S.C. supporters can form a branch’. See Richman papers (vide infra). and Notting Hill. The South East London V.S.C. Ad Hoc Committee is also a puppet of Manchanda’s, but it and the two branches mentioned above have officially been disowned by the V.S.C. executive.

 

The VSC’s newsletter provides it own list of Ad Hoc Committees in and around London in October 1968 as [8]List of Local Ad Hoc Committees In/Around London, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No. 18, October 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org).

  • North London (N6), East London (E8), Kentish Town (NW5), South Essex (Brentwood), Southeast London (SE1), West Middlesex (W4), Northwest London (NW6), Croydon, Surrey (SW8)

On 16 October, Dixon states the South East London ad hoc committee is controlled by the Maoists and not recognised by the VSC. This time he also gives the name and address of its secretary.[9]Conrad Dixon, V.S.C. “Autumn Offensive”, weekly summary, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 16 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).

SDS infiltration of the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign

The officers revealed to date (February 2018) by the Undercover Policing Inquiry as having infiltrating the VSC are John Graham (alias), Bill Lewis (alias), Dick Epps (alias), HN322[10]The HN number (also called nominals or ciphers) system has been adopted by operation Herne and the Undercover Policing Inquiry to refer to police officers when discussing them in the first instance. Many have restriction orders over their real names, and in other cases, the cover names also remain unpublished. For more on this, see Undercover Research Group, N Officers, Powerbase.info, 2018., Don de Freitas, and Margaret White.

‘John Graham’ (HN329) is said to have targeted the Kilburn branch and have reported on the Revolutionary Socialist Students Federation. Given the importance of the Kilburn branch it is discussed in more detail below.

‘Don de Freitas’  (HN330) infiltrated the Havering branch. Dixon had reported the founding of this branch in his 30 October report. While in the final report of 22 October, he writes:[11]Conrad Dixon, V.S.C. “Autumn Offensive” weekly report, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 22 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).

According to his Risk Assessment in the Undercover Policing Inquiry, ‘Don de Freitas’ attended some of the Havering branch’s meetings, both public and private, and ceased his deployment following the march of 27 October.[12]’HN330′, HN330 Open personal statement (redacted), Metropolitan Police Service, 15 Nov 2017 (accessed 10 February 2018 via UCPI.org.uk). For several months in 1968, SDS undercover officer ‘Margaret White’ (HN334) attended these events with him as his girlfriend; after which she remained in the SDS back office until 1972.[13]Sir John Mitting, In the matter of section 19 (3) of the Inquiries Act 2005 Applications for restriction orders in respect of the real and cover names of officers of the Special Operations Squad and the Special Demonstrations Squad ‘Minded to’ note 2, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 14 November 2017 (accessed 15 November 2017).

The Risk Assessment conducted on behalf of the Inquiry for ‘John Graham’ states that this VSC meetings he attended were held at the Durham Arms, Kennington (4.8).[14]David Reid, HN329 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service (via UCPI.org.uk), 31 May 2017 (accessed 3 August 2017). This pub was at 41 Harleyford Road, SE11, and is now closed.[15]Durham Arms, Kennington, ClosedPubs.co.uk, undated (accessed 8 August 2017) The Durham Arms is an unlikely venue as it was a considerable distance away from Kilburn, and in an area with its own local VSC branch, the Lambeth one. This indicates there is an as yet unnamed undercover who targeted Lambeth VSC.

HN322 appears to have spent September to December 1968 in South East London VSC.[16]David Walker, HN322 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service, 15 Nov 2017 (accessed 10 February 2018 via UCPI.org.uk). Given Dixon’s comments on the Maoist control of this group, it is possible some of this material came from this undercover officer, though they have denied infiltrating any group.[17]For a breakdown on what is known of HN322 from material released by the Undercover Policing Inquiry, see the Undercover Research Group profile of him at HN322, Powerbase.info, 2018.

In a judgment restricting publication of HN322’s real name, the Inquiry Chair, John Mitting, wrote:[18]Sir John Mitting, In the matter of section 19(3) of the Inquiries Act 2005 Applications for restriction orders in respect of the real and cover names of officers of the Special Operations Squad and the Special Demonstrations Squad – Ruling, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 20 February 2018 (accessed 4 March 2018).

Documents… show that he attended a small number of public meetings held to prepare for the anti-Vietnam war demonstration in London on 27 October 1968 in the company of another officer in the Special Demonstration Squad and reported on them to the founding head of the Squad, Conrad Dixon. His recollection that he was not deployed may, therefore be wrong; but the nature of his reporting suggests that it was a traditional Special Branch deployment, not an infiltration.

 

HN321, who used the cover name ‘Bill Lewis’, was deployed 1968-1969. According to the Undercover Policing Inquiry: ‘He may have been encountered by individuals involved with the International Marxist Group or the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign in London at that time.'[19]Undercover Policing Inquiry, Press Notice: No cover name anonymity sought in respect of HN321, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 5 October 2017 (accessed 10 October 2017).

While HN336, as ‘Dick Epps’, targeted the VSC and International Marxist Group from 1969 to 1972, as well as the British Communist Party.[20]Sir John Mitting, In the matter of section 19 (3) of the Inquiries Act 2005 Applications for restriction orders in respect of the real and cover names of officers of the Special Operations Squad and the Special Demonstrations Squad ‘Minded to’ note 2, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 14 November 2017 (accessed 15 November 2017).

Finally, there is the following line from the obituary of Conrad Dixon, that in October 1968:[21]Conrad Dixon (obituary), The Times, 28 April 1994 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).

Dixon lead from the front, and when the London School of Economics was occupied by revolting students, he was first up the steps – and in text-book style – promptly took charge of the telephone exchange so as to control communication with the press.

 

This hints that Dixon took the role of an undercover officer himself focusing on the RSSF group at the LSE.

Kilburn and Camden VSC branches

Undercover HN329 targeted the Vietnam Solidarity Group as ‘John Graham’. According to the risk assessment for him, and presumably relying on contemporary notes, HN329 infiltrated the Kilburn and Willesden branch of the VSC – the NW6 & NW10 postcodes in north London. Several references to the Kilburn group can be found in contemporary material. The February 1968 Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin noted the branch had recently formed,[22]Local V.S.C. Activities, Vietnam Solidarity Campaign Bulletin, No. 11, February 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org, 8 August 2017). while in July 1968 a member of the Kilburn VSC co-authored a pamphlet entitled Background to the Vietnam War.[23]Background to the Vietnam War, July 1968, Papers of Marie and Geoff Richman, Bishopsgate Institute, (vide infra). Dixon also listed it as one of the active VSC branches is August 1968.[24]Conrad Dixon, Report on Vietnam Solidarity Campaign, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 30 August 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).

An examination of materials from the time, the north west branches played a leading role in the VSC and were part of the North London Ad Hoc Committee – which in August 1968 put forward the proposal that the march of 27 October should avoid Grosvenor Square.[25]The October Mobilisation: Proposals of the North London Ad Hoc Committee, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No.17, August 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org). This appears to have been the motion discussed at the September VSC Ad Hoc Committee public meeting and which was subsequently accepted.

On 10 September Dixon reported that the North West London ad hoc committees was one of those which had formed to co-ordinate local activity ahead of the 27 October protests, in this case via the North-West London Action Group.[26]Conrad Dixon, Vietnam Solidarity Campaign “Autumn Offensive”, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 10 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK). While the VSC Bulletin of October 1968 listed contacts of the ad hoc committees for NW6 / Northwest London and NW8 / Kentish Town.[27]List of Local Ad Hoc Committees In/Around London, Bulletin of the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign, No. 18, (October) 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org, 8 August 2017).

Note: The evolution of the branches are unclear, but it appears that as increased interest in the protests brought caused the size of the branches to grow, they sub-divided to accommodate the numbers, though this needs confirmation.

The 23 September report says that the North West London ad hoc committee planned to follow the decisions of the VSC national committee,[28]Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 23 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK). While his report of 16 October notes:[29]Conrad Dixon, V.S.C. “Autumn Offensive”, weekly summary, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 16 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).

The North west London ad-hoc Committee of the VSC intend to assemble at Henrietta Street in Covent Garden at 1.30pm on the 27th. They are expected to be about 150 strong.

 

The Kilburn group appears to have declined after October 1968 as no further mentions of the group have been found. In December 1968, the Hampstead group renamed itself the Camden group, the first mention we have found in contemporary material of a specific Camden VSC branch.[30]Letter announcing formation of Camden Vietnam Solidarity Campaign branch, circa December 1968, Papers of Marie and Geoff Richman, Bishopsgate Institute, (vide infra). ‘John Graham’ in his personal statement recalled that he attended the Camden branch meetings.[31]’HN329′, Impact / Personal Statement by HN329 (open version), Metropolitan Police Service, 29 March 2017 (accessed 5 August 2017 via ucpi.org.uk). Another source also noted that the Camden branch had grown out of the North West Ad Hoc Committee which had formed to organise for the 27 October demonstration.[32]Geoff Richman, ‘On Strategy’, document in Maria & Geoff Richman papers; also referenced by Hughes (p. 193), vide infra” on both.

The Camden branch was active into 1969, being mentioned then as doing stalls in London (as was the North West Kent branch)[33]Locals, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, no. 20, January 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org).

The VSC bulletins in the latter half of 1968 and early 1969 contain various articles on the future of the organisation by members of the Camden branch, including discussing future strategy of the organisation. The February 1969 issue of the IMG’s International newsletter notes the Camden folk as being unaligned:[34]All out for March 16, International (newsletter of the International Marxist Group), Vol. 2, No.2, February 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org). and later writings consider the group as Maoist influenced[35]Celia Hughes, The Socio-Cultural Milieux of the Left in Post-War Britain (PhD Thesis), Warwick University, 2011 (accessed 8 August 2017). (albeit appear to be different from Manchanda’s group).[36]The degree to which the Camden VSC group can be regarded being Maoist-influenced needs further clarification. The branch evolved in 1969, reconstituting itself into the Camden Movement for People Power and published the Red Camden newsletter, and became active in the Women’s Liberation movement.

The January 1969 issue of the Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin reported that London VSC committees had taken over a pro-Vietnam War meeting at Kensington Town Hall on 3 December 1968. Singled out for special mention is Geoff Richman, a central figure in the Camden group[37]Geoffrey Crossick, London V.S.C. captures Saigon propaganda meeting, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, no. 20, January 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org)., and is likely to be the doctor referred to by ‘John Graham’ as one of those he got close to.[38]Celia Hughes, The Socio-Cultural Milieux of the Left in Post-War Britain (PhD Thesis), Warwick University, 2011 (accessed 8 August 2017).[39]David Reid, HN329 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service, 31 May 2017 (accessed 3 August 2017, via ucpi.org.uk).

Though it is not clear the extent to which ‘John Graham’ monitored the Camden group, it does place him close to the heart of the VSC organising in north London and leading campaigners around the Vietnam War.

The Camden branch / North West London ad hoc committee also shared leading members with Australians and New Zealanders Against the Vietnam War (ANZAVW) and also the Revolutionary Socialist Student’s Federation.[40]Unpublished research, cross referencing names from contemporary documents. In a number of cases, leading activists of the VSC, RSSF and ANZAVW appear as contacts for various of the branches and local ad hoc committees in the run up to the demonstration of 27 October. Material from the Undercover Policing Inquiry note that John Graham reported back on the RSSF. Mention is made in HN329’s statement of an incident in which he was assaulted by a security guard at the Australian High Commission.[41]’John Graham’, Impact / Personal Statement by HN329 (open version), Metropolitan Police Service, 29 March 2017 (accessed 5 August 2017, via ucpi.org.uk). It is likely this gives context for the following material from Dixon’s report of 3 October:[42]Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 3 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).

The Revolutionary Socialist Students Federation continues to emphasise the importance of Australia House as a symbol of Commonwealth complicity in the Vietnam War and is calling for militant action there. Members of the group Australians and New Zealanders Against the Vietnam war attempted to disrupt a social event at Australia House on 27.9.68: Police had advance warning of their intentions, and about a dozen people who tried to create a disturbance were escorted from the premises. All the indications are that a further attempt will be made at this building.

 

Police line of command

  • John Waldron, Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police. Deputy Commissioner, he acceded on the sudden death of his predecessor Joseph Simpson on 20 March 1968.[43]See Wikipedia articles: Joseph Simpson & John Waldon (police officer) for further details & sources (accessed 10 August 2017).
    • Peter Ewan Brodie, Assistant Commissioner “C” (Crime), head of CID between April 1966 and 1972.[44]Peter Brodie (police officer), Wikipedia, 2017 (accessed 10 August 2017).
      • Ferguson ‘Fergie’ Smith, Commander of Special Branch 1966 to 1972, with rank of Deputy Assistant Commissioner.[45]Obituary: Ferguson Smith, The Telegraph, 2013 (accessed 10 August 2017).
        • Ch. Supt. A[rthur][46]Tentative identification of first name only based on material from the Wilson & Adams history of Special Branch (page 240, vide infra). Cunningham. Name appears as signing a number of Special Branch reports submitted by Conrad Dixon in 1968, though he is seemingly replaced by 3 October that year by an Acting Chief Superintendent.[47]Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 3 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
          • Det. Ch. Insp. Conrad Dixon, founding head of the Special Demonstration Squad, 1968 onwards.

Special Branch reports from 1968, authored by Conrad Dixon and under the authority of Ch. Supt. A. Cunningham, were regularly submitted to one J. M. Clift of F.4 Division in the Home Office. In later years, F.4 is listed as having responsibility for overseeing counter-terrorism and related matters.

[3. Contemporary Special Branch files in context] [Return to Intro] [5. Additional Material]

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References   [ + ]

1. Local V.S.C. Activities, Vietnam Solidarity Bulliten, Issue 11, February 1968 (accessed via the Richman papers, vide infra). The Hackney branch existed in May 1968, when it and the North West Kent branches registered for the VSC National Conference – see Minutes of VSC Executive Committee meeting of 2 May 1968, Richman papers (vide infra).
2, 24. Conrad Dixon, Report on Vietnam Solidarity Campaign, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 30 August 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
3. Conrad Dixon, Report on Vietnam Solidarity Campaign “Autumn Offensive”, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 10 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).
4. Diary of Forthcoming Events: September-October, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No. 17, 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org).
5, 6, 42, 47. Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 3 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
7. Minutes of the VSC Executive Committee of 2 May 1968 note that ‘Attemt to form a Branch in Earls Court swamped by opponents of V.S.C.. [Executive Committee] declares that meeting was null and void. Only V.S.C. supporters can form a branch’. See Richman papers (vide infra).
8. List of Local Ad Hoc Committees In/Around London, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No. 18, October 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org).
9, 29. Conrad Dixon, V.S.C. “Autumn Offensive”, weekly summary, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 16 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).
10. The HN number (also called nominals or ciphers) system has been adopted by operation Herne and the Undercover Policing Inquiry to refer to police officers when discussing them in the first instance. Many have restriction orders over their real names, and in other cases, the cover names also remain unpublished. For more on this, see Undercover Research Group, N Officers, Powerbase.info, 2018.
11. Conrad Dixon, V.S.C. “Autumn Offensive” weekly report, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 22 October 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.uk).
12. ’HN330′, HN330 Open personal statement (redacted), Metropolitan Police Service, 15 Nov 2017 (accessed 10 February 2018 via UCPI.org.uk).
13, 20. Sir John Mitting, In the matter of section 19 (3) of the Inquiries Act 2005 Applications for restriction orders in respect of the real and cover names of officers of the Special Operations Squad and the Special Demonstrations Squad ‘Minded to’ note 2, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 14 November 2017 (accessed 15 November 2017).
14. David Reid, HN329 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service (via UCPI.org.uk), 31 May 2017 (accessed 3 August 2017).
15. Durham Arms, Kennington, ClosedPubs.co.uk, undated (accessed 8 August 2017)
16. David Walker, HN322 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service, 15 Nov 2017 (accessed 10 February 2018 via UCPI.org.uk).
17. For a breakdown on what is known of HN322 from material released by the Undercover Policing Inquiry, see the Undercover Research Group profile of him at HN322, Powerbase.info, 2018.
18. Sir John Mitting, In the matter of section 19(3) of the Inquiries Act 2005 Applications for restriction orders in respect of the real and cover names of officers of the Special Operations Squad and the Special Demonstrations Squad – Ruling, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 20 February 2018 (accessed 4 March 2018).
19. Undercover Policing Inquiry, Press Notice: No cover name anonymity sought in respect of HN321, Undercover Policing Inquiry, 5 October 2017 (accessed 10 October 2017).
21. Conrad Dixon (obituary), The Times, 28 April 1994 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
22. Local V.S.C. Activities, Vietnam Solidarity Campaign Bulletin, No. 11, February 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org, 8 August 2017).
23. Background to the Vietnam War, July 1968, Papers of Marie and Geoff Richman, Bishopsgate Institute, (vide infra).
25. The October Mobilisation: Proposals of the North London Ad Hoc Committee, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, No.17, August 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org).
26. Conrad Dixon, Vietnam Solidarity Campaign “Autumn Offensive”, Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 10 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
27. List of Local Ad Hoc Committees In/Around London, Bulletin of the Vietnam Solidarity Campaign, No. 18, (October) 1968 (accessed via Marxists.org, 8 August 2017).
28. Conrad Dixon, VSC “Autumn Offensive” (weekly report), Metropolitan Police Special Branch, 23 September 1968 (accessed via SpecialBranchFiles.UK).
30. Letter announcing formation of Camden Vietnam Solidarity Campaign branch, circa December 1968, Papers of Marie and Geoff Richman, Bishopsgate Institute, (vide infra).
31. ’HN329′, Impact / Personal Statement by HN329 (open version), Metropolitan Police Service, 29 March 2017 (accessed 5 August 2017 via ucpi.org.uk).
32. Geoff Richman, ‘On Strategy’, document in Maria & Geoff Richman papers; also referenced by Hughes (p. 193), vide infra” on both.
33. Locals, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, no. 20, January 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org).
34. All out for March 16, International (newsletter of the International Marxist Group), Vol. 2, No.2, February 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org).
35, 38. Celia Hughes, The Socio-Cultural Milieux of the Left in Post-War Britain (PhD Thesis), Warwick University, 2011 (accessed 8 August 2017).
36. The degree to which the Camden VSC group can be regarded being Maoist-influenced needs further clarification.
37. Geoffrey Crossick, London V.S.C. captures Saigon propaganda meeting, Vietnam Solidarity Bulletin, no. 20, January 1969 (accessed via Marxists.org).
39. David Reid, HN329 Open Risk Assessment, Metropolitan Police Service, 31 May 2017 (accessed 3 August 2017, via ucpi.org.uk).
40. Unpublished research, cross referencing names from contemporary documents. In a number of cases, leading activists of the VSC, RSSF and ANZAVW appear as contacts for various of the branches and local ad hoc committees in the run up to the demonstration of 27 October.
41. ’John Graham’, Impact / Personal Statement by HN329 (open version), Metropolitan Police Service, 29 March 2017 (accessed 5 August 2017, via ucpi.org.uk).
43. See Wikipedia articles: Joseph Simpson & John Waldon (police officer) for further details & sources (accessed 10 August 2017).
44. Peter Brodie (police officer), Wikipedia, 2017 (accessed 10 August 2017).
45. Obituary: Ferguson Smith, The Telegraph, 2013 (accessed 10 August 2017).
46. Tentative identification of first name only based on material from the Wilson & Adams history of Special Branch (page 240, vide infra).